who is twelve imam

how is twelve imam

where is imam mahdi now

Muhammad ibn Hassan (pbuh) (born 255 AH), known by titles such as Imam Mahdi, Imam Zaman(twelve imam) and Hojjat ibn al-Hassan, is the twelfth and last Imam of the Shiite Imams whose Imamate began after the martyrdom of Imam Hassan Askari (as)(May God bring him closer) in 260 AH. And will continue until after his appearance in the end times. According to the Shiites, he is the promised Mahdi who will appear after a long period of absence.

According to Shiite sources, the Abbasid government during the Imamate of Imam Hassan Askari (AS) sought to find his son as the Mahdi and the father ‘s successor, and therefore the birth of Imam Zaman(twelve imam) was kept secret, and except for a few special companions of the 11th Shiite Imam, no one Did not see. For this reason, after the martyrdom of Imam Askari (AS), many Shiites became skeptical and sects emerged in the Shiite community and a group of Shiites followed Jafar Kadhab, the uncle of twelve imam. In these circumstances, the instructions of Imam al-Zaman, which were generally written to the Shiites and were communicated to the people by special deputies, led to the re-establishment of Shiism; So much so that in the fourth century AH, among the sects that had split from the Shiites after the 11th Imam, only the Twelver Shiites remained.

After the martyrdom of his father, Imam Zaman was in a minor absence and during this time he was in contact with the Shiites through four special deputies. With the beginning of Kobra’s absence in 329 AH, the people’s relationship with Imam al-Zaman (as) through special deputies also ended. According to Shiites, the Mahdi (pbuh) is alive until he appears with Jesus (pbuh). Shiite scholars have provided explanations about the reasons and details of the long life of twelve imam.

According to the Shiites, Hujjat ibn al-Hassan (as) will appear at the end of time and together with his companions will establish a world government and fill the world, which is full of oppression, with justice. In Islamic narrations, the advice of Muslims to wait for Faraj has been emphasized a lot and Shiites consider these narrations to mean waiting for the advent of Imam al-Zaman.

Shiite commentators, relying on the narrations of the infallibles, have considered some of the verses of the Holy Quran about the Imam of the Age. Many narrations of the Imams have been narrated about the Imam of the time, his life and absence, and his rule, and many hadith books have been written with the aim of narrating these narrations. In addition to hadith books, many written and analytical works have been written about 12 imam.

According to their narrations, the Sunnis consider the Mahdi to be the savior of the apocalypse and consider him to be a descendant of the Prophet (PBUH), but many of them still believe that he will be born in the apocalypse. Meanwhile, some Sunni scholars, such as Sibt ibn Jozi and Ibn Talha Shafi’i, like the Shiites, believe that the Promised Mehdi is the son of Imam Hassan Askari.

Many prayers and dhikrs have been narrated to communicate with the Imam of the Age in the time of absence; Such as the prayer of the covenant, the prayer of Nadbah, the pilgrimage of Al-Yasin and the prayer of Imam al-Zaman. According to some hadiths, meeting the Imam of the Age in the time of absence is also possible, and some Shiite scholars have mentioned anecdotes in their books about the meeting of some people with the Imam of the Age.

Many places in different places are attributed to the Imam of the time; Including the crypt  of absence in Samarra, Sahleh Mosque in Kufa and Jamkaran Mosque in Qom in iran.

Name, nicknames and titles of Imam Mahdi (peace be upon him)

In Shiite hadiths, letters such as Muhammad, Ahmad and Abdullah are mentioned for the Twelfth Imam. However, he is best known among the Shiites as the Mahdi, one of his titles. According to various hadiths, he is the namesake of the Prophet of Islam. In some Shiite hadiths and written sources, such as Al-Kafi and Kamal al-Din, his name is written in separate letters as “Muhammad”. This separation is due to several hadiths that forbid mentioning his name.

Main article: Tasmiya al-Mahdi

Many hadiths in Shiite sources forbid mentioning the original name of the Twelfth Imam and consider it haram. There are two well-known theories about these narrations: This sanctity is known as the time of taqiya. On the other hand, Mirdamad and Muhaddith Nouri have considered this prohibition to be current throughout the period before the advent.


The twelve imam of the Shiites has been described in various sources and prayers and pilgrimages with many titles and nicknames. Muhaddith Nouri has mentioned about 182 names and titles in the book of Najm al-Thaqib and about 310 names and titles for the Imam have been mentioned in the book “Letter of Hazrat Mahdi (as)”. Some of the titles mentioned by Muhaddith Nouri are as follows: Mahdi, Qaem, Baqiyatullah, Muntaqim, Mo’oud, Sahib al-Zaman, Khatam al-Awsiya, Montazer, Hujjatullah, Muntaqim, Ahmad, Abu al-Qasim, Abu Saleh, Khatam al-Imam, Khalaf or Khalaf Saleh, Khalifa , Saleh, the owner of the matter.

The names and titles of the twelfth Imam of the Shiites are also mentioned in Sunni sources; However, in these sources, the title “Mahdi” is used more and other titles and characteristics are less mentioned. The title “Qaem” is rarely found in Sunni sources.

Family of imam mahdi

Father of Imam Zaman (as)

The father of Imam Zaman (AS), Imam Hassan Askari (AS), is the eleventh Imam of the Twelver Imams, who for six years, from the martyrdom of Imam Hadi (AS) in 254 to 260 AH, who was martyred by Motamed Abbasi, became the Imamate. He was in charge of the Shiites.

Mother of Imam Zaman (as)

The mother of Imam al-Zaman (as) has been read in several letters: narcissus, lily, pollen or polished, hadith, sage, queen, basil and khumt. A total of four types of narrations have been narrated about the story and characteristics of Imam Zaman’s mother; According to a narration first narrated by Sheikh Saduq in Kamal al-Din and all the blessings, the mother of Imam al-Zaman (as) is considered a Roman prince, and in other narrations, without mentioning her story, only the mother of Imam al-Zaman was raised in the house of Hakimah, daughter Imam Javad (AS) is mentioned. According to the third group of narrations quoted by Mas’udi in proving the will, the mother of Imam al-Zaman, in addition to being educated in the house of the eleventh Imam’s aunt, was also born in the same house. The narrations of the fourth category are fundamentally different from the last three categories. In these narrations, the mother of Imam al-Zaman (as) is considered a black maid. Some of these narrations, especially the fourth category, cannot be combined with each other. Therefore, Allameh Majlisi says that the narrations of the fourth category are different from many narrations in this regard, unless we consider them about the mother through the mediator or mentor of Imam al-Zaman.

Jeddah of Imam Zaman (as)

The mother of Imam Hassan Askari (AS) and the grandmother of Imam Zaman (AS), who is called “Jeddah” in the narrations. Some scholars say that he played an important role in the events of his minor absence, and according to sources, after the martyrdom of Imam Hassan Askari (AS), the affairs of the Shiites were mainly on his shoulders.

Aunt of Imam Zaman’s father

Hakimeh, the daughter of Imam Javad (AS) and aunt of Imam Hassan Askari (AS), lived at the same time with four Imams and according to Shiite sources, witnessed and narrated the birth of Imam Zaman (AS). Imam Zaman’s mother was raised in his house and Many narrations about the birth of Imam al-Zaman have been narrated from him.

Jafar Kadhab

Ja’far ibn Muhammad, the uncle of Imam al-Zaman, claimed the Imamate after the death of Imam Hassan al-Askari, and for this reason he is called Ja’far al-Kadhab. According to narrative sources, he is considered a person of immorality and great sins. He remained and considered himself an Imam. Other sources state that he renounced his claim and repented, and that the Shiites called him Ja’far Tawab instead of Ja’far Kadhab. Jafar Kadhab died at the age of 45 in Samarra.

sister and brother

In most Shiite and Sunni sources, Imam Zaman is mentioned as the only child of Imam Hassan Askari (AS). However, there are other sayings that he has two brothers and three sisters.

Spouse and child

Marriage of Imam Mahdi (as)

According to the research of Imam Mahdi’s encyclopedia, a new debate has been raised since the 1350s, whether Imam Zaman (as) has a wife and children during his absence and even at the time of his appearance? There are three opinions about this. A group like Seyyed Mohammad Sadr agrees with Imam’s marriage. They are time and mainly cite a number of narrations and prayers which refer to the children and wife of Imam al-Zaman (as). They also cite narrations that explicitly introduce Imam al-Asr (as) as childless at the time of his absence and reappearance, and another group, such as Sayyid Ja’far Morteza Ameli, sees this as a matter of doubt and prefers to do so. To be silent about.

Birth: time and place, hiding and how Shiites are aware

Time of birth

There is disagreement about the year of birth of Imam Askari’s (AS) son. Some ancient sources do not mention his date of birth and consider it secret. But many narrations of Shiites and some Sunnis have considered the year of birth of the twelfth Imam of Shiites as 255 AH or 256 AH.

There are also differences about the month of the Imam’s birth; But the famous saying is Sha’ban, and many ancient Shiite sources have stated the same month. At the same time, some Shiite and Sunni sources have mentioned Ramadan and some Sunni sources have mentioned Rabi ‘al-Awal and Rabi’ al-Thani.

Historical sources have various reports about the birthday of the twelfth Imam, among which, the day of mid-Sha’ban is a famous report. Among Shiite scholars, Klini, Masoudi, Sheikh Saduq, Sheikh Mofid, Sheikh Tusi, Fatal Neyshabouri, Amin al-Islam Tabarsi, Ibn Tawus, Ibn Taqtaqi, Allameh Hilli, the first martyr, Kafami, Sheikh Baha’i and others, and among Sunni scholars Ibn Khalqan, Ibn Sabbagh Maliki, Hanafi poets, Ibn Tulun and others have reported this promise. Also, the first Friday night of Ramadan or the Friday night of the month of Ramadan is reported in the book of Kamal al-Din Sheikh Saduq.

Place of birth

Historians who have spoken about this agree that Imam al-Zaman (as) was born in the house of his father Imam Askari (as) in Samarra and this house was located in an alley called “Razah” or “Wasafa”. . This house is now the court of Imam Hadi (AS) and Imam Askari (AS). According to historical narrations, Imam Hadi (AS) and Imam Askari (AS) were called Samarra, the center of the Abbasid Caliphate, many years before the birth of Imam Zaman (AS) and lived there until the end of his life.

Description of the story

The famous narration of the description of the birth of Imam Zaman (as) is based on the narration of Hakimeh Khatun, the aunt of Imam Askari (as) In some parts of Sheikh Saduq’s report, Hakimeh’s words are quoted:

“Imam Hassan Askari called me to him and said: O aunt! Be with us tonight, which is the night of mid-Sha’ban, and may God Almighty reveal his proof tonight, which is his proof on earth. I said: Who is his mother? Said: Narcissus. I said: I beg your pardon! There is no trace of pregnancy in him. He said: That is what I am telling you.

He says: I came and when I greeted and sat down, Narjis came to take my shoes off my feet and said: How are you, my lady and the lady of my family? I said: You are my lady and the lady of my family. [Narjis] was dissatisfied with my words and said: Aunt! What is this? I said: My daughter! God Almighty will give you a son tonight who is a master in this world and the hereafter. Narcissus was embarrassed and ashamed. When I finished praying, I broke my fast and slept in my bed. I got up in the middle of the night to pray and performed it; While Narcissus was asleep and nothing had changed in her. I followed the prayers and then lay down. Then I woke up scared. He was still asleep. So get up and pray and go to sleep.

Hakimeh continues: I came out and looked at the sky in search of Fajr. I saw the first dawn blowing and he was asleep. Doubt struck my heart. At this time, Abu Muhammad (Imam Askari (AS)) called from his room: O aunt! Do not rush as it approaches. He says: I sat down and recited the surahs of Al-Sajdah and Yasin. In the meantime, he woke up scared. I went to him and said: Do you feel anything? He said: Yes, aunt! I said: Be in control of yourself and keep your heart strong, which is what I told you. Hakimeh says: I took a nap and the birth took place. So I came to my senses with the call of my master and took the garment off him and saw him (the daughter of Narjis) prostrating and his prostration positions on the ground. I hugged him. Saw clean and tidy.

Abu Muhammad said: O Aunt Jan! Bring my child to me! I took him to him. Abu Muhammad placed one hand under his waist and the other hand under his shoulder so that his feet were on his chest. Then he put his tongue in her mouth and put his hand on her eyes, ears and joints. Then he said: My son! Speak up. He said: “I bear witness that there is no god but God, and there is no partner with Him, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of God.” Then he greeted the Commander of the Faithful and other Imams (AS) until he reached his father and understood the language.

The secret of birth

According to Sheikh Mufid, Imam Askari (AS) kept the birth of his son a secret because of the difficult conditions of that time and the intense search for the Sultan of the time, and because it was known that the Shiites were waiting for the coming of the Mahdi (AS).

According to the narrations of the Prophet (PBUH) and the Imams (AS), the caliphs of Bani Abbas knew that the twelfth Imam of the Shiites was the promised Mahdi; Therefore, they appointed guardians over Imam Hassan Askari and his house. Historians have said that Motamed Abbasi had ordered the midwives to enter Sadat’s house, especially the house of Imam Askari (as), from time to time, and to search the house to find out and report on his wife. It is narrated that a maid named Saqil allegedly claimed to be pregnant in order to save the life of Imam al-Zaman (as) and was arrested and monitored for two years to ensure that she was not pregnant and then released.

The narrations also mention the secret of Mahdi’s birth and the reason for it. Imam Sajjad (AS) says: “There are traditions of the prophets in our country … but the tradition of Ibrahim is to hide the birth and withdraw from the people.” Imam Sadegh (AS) also says: “The birth of Sahib al-Amr is hidden from this people until it appears; “So that no one’s allegiance is on his neck.”

The secrecy of the birth has a history in the history of the prophets, including the birth of Ibrahim (AS) was hidden for fear of being killed by the king of his time. Indicates its secrecy.

Witnesses of birth

Hakimeh, the daughter of Imam Javad (AS) and two maids of Imam Hassan Askari named Mary and Nasim are among the witnesses of his birth. Sheikh Tusi and Sheikh Saduq have narrated: “Nasim and Maria say: When Sahib al-Zaman was born from his mother’s womb, he put two knees on the ground and raised two index fingers towards the sky. Then he sneezed and said: “Praise be to God, the Lord of the worlds and the Messenger of God, Ali Muhammad and his family.” The wicked think that the authority of God is gone. “If we had the permission in the word, the doubt would disappear.”

Sunni reports

Among Sunni scholars, some have reported the birth of Imam Mahdi (as); But they have remained silent about his promise, such as Ibn Athir (d. 630 AH) in the book Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, Ibn al-Khalqan (d. 681 AH) in the book Wafiat al-A’yan [49] and Zahabi (d. 748 AH) in the book of Al-Abr. Others, in addition to reporting the birth, have also stated that he was promised, such as Ibn al-Talha al-Shafi’i (d. 652 AH) in al-Suwal [50] and Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki (d. 855 AH) in the important chapters

Shiites are aware of the birth

Some special and trusted Shiites have seen Imam Hassan Askari (AS), Imam Zaman (AS) as a child. Sheikh Mufid mentions people such as Muhammad ibn Ismail ibn Musa ibn Ja’far (AS), Abu Ali ibn Motahar, Amr Ahwazi and Abu Nasr Tarif, the custodian of the house of the eleventh Imam (AS), who were able to see the Imam of the Age (AS).

Muhammad ibn Uthman Omari and forty other people were with Imam Hassan Askari (AS). Imam (AS) showed his son to them and said: “This is your Imam after me and my successor among you. “Obey him and do not differ in your religion, otherwise you will perish and you will never see him again.”

A similar narration has been narrated by Sheikh Tusi and he has mentioned people such as Ali ibn Bilal, Ahmad ibn Hilal, Muhammad ibn Mu’awiyah ibn Hakim and Hassan ibn Ayyub ibn Nuh. Klini also narrated from Dhu ibn Ali Ajli that a man from Persia said: I went to Samarra to serve in the house of Hazrat Askari (AS) and Imam (AS) made me responsible for buying a house. One day, Imam Askari (AS) showed me his son (who was about two years old) and said: “This is my owner.” Dawa ibn Ali Ajli adds that the man from Persia said that he had not seen the child until after the death of Imam Hassan Askari (AS).

Sheikh Mufid also considers people such as Uthman bin Saeed and his son Muhammad bin Uthman to be those who saw the Imam of the Age (as) during his father’s lifetime. Also, people from the families of Bani Al-Rahba from Nasib, and Bani Saeed, and Bani Mahziar from Ahvaz, and Bani Al-Rukuli from Kufa, and Bani Nobakht from Baghdad, and a group of people from Qazvin and Qom and the Jabal region also Imam al-Zaman (as) during his lifetime. They have seen Imam Hassan Askari (AS).

Bani Abbas reaction

After the news of Imam Hassan Askari’s (AS) illness reached the then caliph, Al-Mu’tamid Abbasi, he sent five of his trusted officers to monitor Imam (AS) at his house. Al-Mu’tamid also ordered his judge to appoint ten of his trusted people to take care of the Imam.

Imam Hassan Askari (AS) in his will, transferred all his property to his mother Hadith, but the Abbasids did not allow all the property to reach his mother and half of the property was taken by Ja’far, the uncle of Imam Zaman (AS).

After the death of Imam Hassan Askari (AS), the Abbasid Caliph sent a group to the house of Imam (AS) and this group, in addition to sealing the house and property of Imam (AS), searched for his son and his wives and maids. They examined her for pregnancy and took a maid named Saqil, who was suspected of being pregnant, with her and kept her under surveillance for two years, after which she was released.

The life of the twelfth Imam

Imam Zaman was born in 255 AH and according to Shiites, he is alive until he appears with Jesus (pbuh). About twelve centuries have passed since that date. Shiite scholars have offered various answers about how this long life lasts and have studied the “possibility of the continuation of human life” from a scientific and practical point of view.

Experimental answers

Biologists believe that longevity is possible for humans. Lotfollah Safi Golpayegani quotes many Western scientists who have claimed that biologically, humans can live up to 800 or 1000 years.

Rational and verbal answers

The divine will can be attributed to the longevity or longevity of human life.

The human soul manages and dominates the body. If the soul is so powerful that in addition to providence, it also has dominion over the body, it can hold its body for a longer period of time with God’s permission.

Survival is inherently possible in humans, and non-survival is due to a side effect. An incidental matter is also possible. So if it is not a side effect, survival is achieved.

According to historical accounts and its occurrence, the best reason for the possibility of an object is its occurrence.

Miracle: The longevity of Imam Zaman is about miracles and is one of the supernatural things.

The food and wine of Uzair Nabi remained healthy and fresh after a hundred years without having a soul, a person with a soul in the first way can have a life beyond normal life.

Historical examples

Abu Hatam Sajistani in a book called “Al-Mu’ammarun wa Al-Wasaya” has spoken about those who lived beyond normal life, such as Adam, Noah, Khidr and Loghman Ibn Adia. Some Shiite scholars, such as Sheikh Saduq in Kamal al-Din, Karajki in al-Burhan, on the subject of the longevity of Imam Sahib al-Zaman, have also written a chapter on the Mu’ammirs in response to the suspicion of longevity, listing dozens of those who have lived long.

Celestial books

The Torah mentions people who have lived long and unusual lives. The Holy Qur’an also counts the years of Noah’s invitation as nine hundred and fifty years, and announces the long lives of the previous nations.


In some of the narrations, the long life of Imam al-Zaman is mentioned, including Imam Sajjad (AS): Our ruler has traditions from the prophets … His tradition of Adam and Noah is long life … Imam Sadegh ( The Imam compared the time to Ibrahim (AS) who lived to be one hundred and twenty years old but was thirty years old as a youth. It has been narrated from Imam Hassan (AS) that God prolongs the life of the ninth child of my brother Hussein, then by His power makes him appear young when he is less than forty years old.

The end of Imam’s life

Imam Zaman will rule the world after the resurrection in the end times. The period of rule in the narrations is mentioned from seven to 303 years. Some Shiite traditions state that the length of government is seven years, but each year is equivalent to ten or twenty years. In some narrations, the length of government is tied to divine providence and is vague.

There is no narration about how the Imam of the time was martyred or died. According to the famous saying of the martyrdom of all Imams, some scholars believe in the martyrdom of the Imam at the end of the government, based on the narration of “We are the only one who is poisoned by his victim.” Only a non-narrative narration tells about the martyrdom of the Imam. In this narration, Imam Mahdi is martyred after a seventy years of rule by a bearded woman named Saida. Although Alzam al-Nasib mentions this narration among the events after its emergence and then considers this collection as a narration from the narrations, but such a narration has not been found among the narration sources.

According to the Imams, after the end of the life of the Imam of the time, there will be a return. Imam Hussein (AS) is the first person who will return and bathe and cover Imam Mahdi and offer prayers on him.

who is twelve imam